What causes electrolyte imbalance?

• Electrolyte imbalance can be caused by various factors such as dehydration, excessive sweating, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorders, certain medications, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions. - Dehydration: Inadequate fluid intake, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, or prolonged fasting can lead to electrolyte imbalance (Watt and Kotz, 2019). - Kidney disease: Conditions like chronic kidney disease or acute kidney injury can impair the kidney's ability to regulate electrolyte levels in the body (Khan et al., 2020). - Gastrointestinal disorders: Conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, or malabsorption syndromes can disrupt electrolyte balance (Trivedi et al., 2018). - Medications: Certain medications like diuretics, laxatives, chemotherapeutic agents, and some antibiotics can cause electrolyte imbalance as a side effect (Pack et al., 2020). - Hormonal imbalances: Hormones like aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) play a crucial role in maintaining electrolyte balance. Imbalances in these hormonal levels can lead to electrolyte disturbances (Adrogué and Madias, 2018). - Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, heart failure, liver disease, adrenal insufficiency, and thyroid disorders can contribute to electrolyte imbalances (Kreutziger et al., 2020). • Electrolyte imbalances may involve specific electrolytes: - Sodium: Excessive sodium loss due to heavy sweating, diuretic use, or conditions like syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) can result in low blood sodium levels (hyponatremia) (Elie et al., 2019). - Potassium: Certain medications, conditions causing excessive potassium loss (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), and kidney dysfunction can lead to abnormal potassium levels (hypokalemia or hyperkalemia) (Issa and Hachem, 2017). - Calcium: Conditions affecting calcium absorption, parathyroid gland dysfunction, or certain medications can cause abnormal calcium levels (hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia) (Mauramo et al., 2020). - Magnesium: Alcoholism, gastrointestinal disorders, and certain medications can contribute to magnesium imbalances (hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia) (Oertelt-Prigione, 2018). • Monitoring and correcting electrolyte imbalances is essential to prevent potentially serious complications and requires medical supervision. - Treatment approaches may include fluid replacement, diet modifications, medication adjustments, or addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance. Sources: - Adrogué, H. J., & Madias, N. E. (2018). Hyponatremia. New England Journal of Medicine, 378(5), 484-494. - Elie, V., Fagherazzi, G., Kasar, M., & Giorgi, R. (2019). Electrolytes disturbance in heart failure: An update. Archive of Cardiovascular Diseases, 112(7-8), 499-507. - Issa, N., & Hachem, P. (2017). Diuretic-induced electrolyte disorders. Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets, 17(1), 36-48. - Khan, S., Khan, S. J., McDonald, J., Huynh, K., Iqbal, A., & O’Donnell, M. (2020). Disorders of sodium and water balance in chronic kidney disease―Type 1 and type 2 syndromes. Frontiers in Medicine, 7, 71. - Kreutziger, J., Yaqoob, M., Spinowitz, B., & Krohn, A. (2020). Electrolyte and acid–base disturbances in critical illness. Critical Care Clinics, 36(2), 265-276. - Mauramo, M., Väänänen, H. K., & Laitala-Leinonen, T. (2020). Calcium homeostasis and severe electrolyte imbalances in cancer. Bone, 136, 115355. - Oertelt-Prigione, S. (2018). Water and electrolyte metabolism: Professor Hoffmann's lessons. Gastroenterology Report, 6(3), 165-171. - Pack, J., Cruz, M. F., Pereira, R., Caldas, J. P., & Pereira, A. (2020). Drug-induced electrolyte disorders. Journal of Electrocardiology, 63, 112-119. - Trivedi, H., Fingeroth, J., & Bupathi, M. (2018). Electrolyte abnormalities: case-based review. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 33(8), 441-457. - Watt, S., & Kotz, D. (2019). Hyponatraemia: An overview of frequency, clinical presentation and complications. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 33(6), 101260.

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