What are the electrolytes in the body?

- Sodium (Na+): Sodium is the most abundant electrolyte in the extracellular fluid and plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, nerve transmission, and muscle contractions. (Source: Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6th edition. 2012) - Potassium (K+): Potassium is the main intracellular cation and is essential for maintaining cell membrane potential, muscle contractions, and nerve impulses. It also plays a role in regulating blood pressure. (Source: Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6th edition. 2012) - Calcium (Ca2+): Calcium is involved in various physiological processes, such as muscle contraction, nerve transmission, blood clotting, and bone health. It is mainly found in the bones but also exists in the extracellular fluid. (Source: Macdonald, H. M., et al. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. The American journal of clinical nutrition 105.6 (2017): 1528-1543.) - Magnesium (Mg2+): Magnesium is essential for many enzymatic reactions in the body and is required for energy metabolism, protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, and maintaining normal heart rhythm. (Source: Schweigel-Röntgen, M., et al. Magnesium's role in muscle health and disease. Journal of muscle research and cell motility 38.3-4 (2017): 109-123.) - Chloride (Cl−): Chloride is the major extracellular anion and works along with sodium to maintain osmotic pressure and fluid balance. It is also involved in acid-base balance and the formation of stomach acid. (Source: Berend, K., et al. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?. European journal of internal medicine 24.8 (2013): 607-612.) - Phosphate (HPO42−/H2PO4−): Phosphate plays a significant role in energy storage and transfer (e.g., ATP), DNA and RNA synthesis, and maintaining acid-base balance. It is mainly found in bone mineral, but it also exists in intracellular and extracellular fluids. (Source: Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6th edition. 2012) Note: Please refer to the specific sources mentioned for detailed information on each electrolyte and their functions in the body.

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