How to tell if a cell is galvanic or electrolytic?

To determine whether a cell is galvanic or electrolytic, several factors need to be considered. Here are some bullet points outlining the key characteristics and indicators, along with scientific and academic references to support the answers: 1. Spontaneity of the redox reaction: - Galvanic (voltaic) cells are spontaneous electrochemical systems where the redox reaction occurs naturally without an external power source. (source: Bard, A. J., & Faulkner, L. R. (2000). Electrochemical methods: fundamentals and applications. John Wiley & Sons.) - Electrolytic cells require an external energy source to drive a non-spontaneous reaction in the opposite direction. (source: Skoog, D. A., West, D. M., & Holler, F. J. (1996). Fundamentals of analytical chemistry (7th ed.). Saunders College Pub.) 2. Components of the cell: - Galvanic cells typically have two half-cells containing different metal electrodes submerged in electrochemically compatible electrolytes. (source: Ebbing, D. D., & Gammon, S. D. (2007). General chemistry (9th ed.). Houghton Mifflin.) - Electrolytic cells also consist of two electrodes but may use the same material or non-metals as electrodes, which permits non-spontaneous reactions. (source: GenChemLabTutorials. (2018). Electrolytic Cells - Basic Introduction. Retrieved from 3. Flow of electrons and ions: - In a galvanic cell, electrons flow spontaneously from the anode (where oxidation occurs) to the cathode (where reduction occurs) through an external circuit. (source: Atkins, P., Jones, L., & Laverman, L. E. (2010). Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight. W. H. Freeman and Company.) - Electrolytic cells require an external power source to drive electrons in the opposite direction, forcing the non-spontaneous reaction. (source: Chang, R. (2016). Chemistry (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill.) 4. Sign of the cell potential (E°): - Galvanic cells have a positive standard cell potential (E° > 0), indicating that the reaction is thermodynamically favorable. (source: Zumdahl, S. S., & Zumdahl, S. A. (2009). Chemical Principles (6th ed.) . Houghton Mifflin.) - Electrolytic cells have a negative standard cell potential (E° < 0) because the external power source compensates for the non-spontaneous redox reaction. (source: Atkins, P., Jones, L., & Laverman, L. E. (2010). Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight. W. H. Freeman and Company.) Remember to include proper in-text citations or references in a suitable and consistent format, adhering to your institution's guidelines.

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